The module provides a comprehensive analysis of the spatial coverage, operations and organization of terminal operators. A thorough appraisal of factors configuring the demand and supply of port services is performed in comparison with problems arising from congestion and oversupply of capacity in ports and terminals. Port production functions are defined with particular emphasis on the development of indicators regarding port and terminal productivity, effectiveness and efficiency. Port environmental issues are critically addressed under the context of the contemporary evolution of compulsory statutory framework and voluntary environmental initiatives and certifications. The module builds on the notions of economies of scale in port production, assesses the strategies of vertical and horizontal integration with emphasis placed upon the types and the structural evolution of port and terminal competition. The module evaluates the theoretical background of port pricing design and application and discusses the main issues and forms of port investment, with emphasis on port concessions theory and application, using contemporary cases studies from selected ports on a global scale.